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Kazakhstan

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 Kazakhstan
 
Country name: Kazakhstan
Conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
Conventional short form: Kazakhstan
Local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
Local short form: Qazaqstan
Former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist RepublicKazakhstan
Government type: republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Capital: Astana
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Kazakhstan is divided into three time zones
Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Area:
Total: 2,717,300 sq km
Land: 2,669,800 sq km 
Water: 47,500 sq km
Climate: continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oases and desert in Central Asia
Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
Population: 15,284,929 (July 2007 est.)
Population Growth Rate: 0.352% (2007 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 22.5% (male 1,758,782/female 1,683,249)
15-64 years:  69.2% (male 5,169,314/female 5,407,661)        
65 years and over: 8.3% (male 446,549/female 819,374) (2007 est.)
Median Age:
Total: 29.1 years
Male:  27.5 years
Female: 30.8 years (2007 est.)
Birth Rate: 16.23 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death Rate:  9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Religions: Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%
Languages: Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 95% (2001 est.)
Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99.5%
Male:  99.8%
Female: 99.3% (1999 est.)
GDP (purchasing power parity): $143.1 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $53.6 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $9,400 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Agriculture: 6.3%
Industry: 41.1%
Services: 52.7% (2006 est.)
Labor force: 7.834 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 20%
Industry: 30%
Services: 50% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7.4% (2006 est.)
Currency (code): tenge (KZT)

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