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Turkmenistan

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 Turkmenistan
Country name: Turkmenistan
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Turkmenistan
Local long form: none
Local short form: Turkmenistan
Former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type: republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Capital: Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)Turkmenistan
Time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Independence: 27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Area:
Total: 488,100 sq km
Land: 488,100 sq km
Water: NEGL
Climate: subtropical desert
Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, sulfur, salt
Population: 5,097,028 (July 2007 est.)
Population Growth Rate: 1.617% (2007 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 34.7% (male 900,718/female 866,930)
15-64 years: 60.9% (male 1,537,638/female 1,567,049)
65 years and over: 4.4% (male 97,454/female 127,239) (2007 est.)
Median Age:
Total: 22.3 years
Male: 21.7 years
Female: 22.9 years (2007 est.)
Birth Rate: 25.36 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
                                                       
Death Rate: 6.17 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Religions: Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
Languages: Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Literacy:
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98.8%
Male: 99.3%
Female: 98.3% (1999 est.)
GDP (purchasing power parity): $42.84 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $15.18 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $8,500 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Agriculture: 24.4%
Industry: 33.9%
Services: 41.7% (2006 est.)
Labor force: 2.32 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture: 48.2%
Industry: 13.8%
Services: 37% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate: 60% (2004 est.)
Currency (code): Turkmen manat (TMM)

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